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POVERTY AND RELIGION IN ROMAN ANTIQUITY

ANCIENT WORKS

Ambrose. "St. Ambrose De Tobia: A Commentary With an Introduction and Translation," trans. Lois Miles Zucker. Patristic Studies 35. Washington: Catholic University of America, 1933.

Aretaeus of Cappadocia. CMG II, 2nd Ed., ed. K. Hude (Berlin, 1858), trans. John Moffat, Aretaeus: Consisting of 8 Books, On the Causes, Symptoms and Cure of Acute and Chronic Diseases, Translated from the Original Greek. London: W. Richardson, 1786?; for reprint of the 1793 French translation by Adamant Coray see Aristote P. Kousis, Arétée. Athens, 1948.

Aristophanes. "The Plutus," trans., B. B. Rogers, in Aristophanes, LCL. Cambridge, Mass.,: Harvard University Press, 1924, 3.365–467.

Athenaeus. Deipnosophistae, trans. Charles Burton Gulick, Athenaeus, LCL. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1930.

Basil. Epistles, trans. Roy J Deferrari, St. Basil: The Letters, LCL. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1926–1934, 4 vols.

———. Hom. 6 (= Homilia in illud: Destruam horrea mea), ed. and trans. Yves Courtonne, Saint Basile: Homélies sur la richesse: edition critique et exégétique. Paris: Firmin–Didot, 1935, 15–37; English trans. M. F. Toal, The Sunday Sermons of the Great Fathers. Chicago: Regnery, 1959, 3.325–32.

———. Hom. 7 (= Homilia in divites), ed. and trans. Courtonne, Saint Basile: Homélies sur la richesse: edition critique et exégétique. Paris, 1935, 39–71.

———. Hom. 8 (= Homilia dicta tempore famis et siccitatis), CPG 2852; PG 31:304–28; modern Greek trans. Panagi tou K. Chr stou, o K o M o : A , Hell nes pateres t s Ekkl sias, 10 vols. Thessaloniki: Paterikai Ekdoseis ‘Gregorios ho Palamas,' 1973, 7.126–61; German trans. Anton Stegmann, Bibliothek der Kirchenväter 472 (1925): 257–75.

———. Hom. Ps14b, ed. and trans. Way, Sister Agnes Clare, Saint Basil: Exegetic Homilies, FC 46 Washington: Catholic University Press, 1963, 181–91.

Cicero. De Officiis, trans., Walter Miller, in Cicero XXI: De Officiis, LCL. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1913.

Clement of Alexandria. "Quis dives salvetur?", ed. O. Stählin, L. Früchtel and U. Treu, Clemens Alexandrinus, GCS 172 (1970), 3.159–91.

Cyprian. "Works and Almsgiving," trans. Roy J. Deferrari, in Saint Cyprian: Treatises, FC 36. New York: The Fathers of the Church Inc., 1958, 225–53.

Didascalia Apostolorum: The Syriac Version Translated and Accompanied by the Verona Latin Fragments, trans. R. Hugh Connolly. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1929.

Gregory of Nazianzus. Epistles. Paul Gallay, Saint Grégoire de Nazianze: Lettres. 2 vols. Greek text with French translation. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1967.

———. Or. 14 (= De pauperum amore), PG 35.857–909; English trans. M. F. Toal, The Sunday Sermons of the Great Fathers. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1963, 4.43–64; for Coptic text see Guy Lafontaine, "La version Copte Bohaïrique du discours, 'Sur L'amour des Pauvres' de Grégoire de Nazianze," Le Muséon 93 (1980):199–236; German trans. Philipp Haeuser, Gregor von Nazianz, Reden. München: Kösel, 1983, 33–68.

———. Or 43 (= Funebris oratio in laudem Basilii Magni Caesareae in Cappadocia episcopi), ed. and trans. Jean Bernardi, SC 384. Paris: CERF, 1992; for English trans. see NPNF2 7.395–422; also trans. Leo P. McCauley, Funeral Orations by St. Gregory Nazianzen and St. Ambrose, FC 22. New York: Fathers of the Church, 1953, 27–99.

Gregory of Nyssa. Epistles. Pierre Maraval. Grégoire de Nysse: Lettres. Greek text with French translation. SC 363. Paris: Les Éditions du Cerf, 1990.

———. Contra Usurarios, crit. ed. GNO 9.1:195–207; English trans. Casimir McCambley OSB, "Against those who practice usury," GOTR 36 (1991): 287–302.

———. De pauperibus amandis: Oratio duo, ed. Arie van Heck. Leiden: EJ Brill, 1964, 1–37 = GNO 9.1 (1967); De Beneficentia; vulgo De pauperibus amandis 1: GNO 9.1:93–108; In illud: Quatenus uni ex his fecistis mihi fecistis; vulgo De pauperibus amandis 2: GNO 9.1:111–27.

———. In laudem Baslii fratris. PG 46.788–817; ed. GNO 10.2 (1990); English ed. and trans. Sister James Aloysius Stein, A. M., Encomium of Saint Gregory, Bishop of Nyssa, on his Brother Saint Basil Archbishop of Caesarea, Patristic Studies 17. Washington: Catholic University of America, 1928.

———. Vita S. Macrina, ed. Virginia Woods Callahan, Gregorii Nysseni Opera Ascetica. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1952, 370–414; English trans. V. W. Callahan, "The Life of Saint Macrina" in Saint Gregory of Nyssa, Ascetical Works, FC 58. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1967, 161–191.

John the Almsgiver [life of, by an unknown ancient editor who merged the sources he had by Leontius and Sophronius] trans. Elizabeth Dawes and Norman H. Baynes, Three Byzantine Saints. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1977, 195-262.

John Chrysostom. 'On Wealth and Poverty,' ed. and trans. Catharine P. Roth. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1984.

John Moschos. The Spiritual Meadow (Pratum Spirituale), ed. and trans. John Wortley, Cistercian Studies Series 139. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Cistercian Press, 1992.

John of Ephesus. Lives of the Eastern Saints, selections ed. and trans. Sebastian P. Brock and Susan Ashbrook Harvey, Holy Women of the Syrian Orient. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Joshua the Stylite. The Chronicle of Joshua the Stylite, trans. William Wright. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1882.

Pachomius. The Life of Pachomius (Vita Prima Graeca), ed. and trans. Apostolos N. Athanassakis, Texts and Translations 7, Early Christian Literature Series 2. Missoula, MT: Scholar's Press, 1975; See also trans. Armand Vielleux, Pachomian Koinonia I: The Life of Saint Pachomius. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 1980.

Pelagius. The letters of Pelagius and his followers, ed. and trans. B. R. Rees. Woodridge and Rochester, New York: The Boynton Press, 1991.

Plutarch. "On Love of Wealth," ed. and trans., Phillip H. DeLacy and Benedict Einarson, in Plutarch: Moralia. LCL. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959, 7.2–39.

Porphyry. De Abstinentia, trans. Thomas Taylor and ed. Esme Wynne Tyson, Porphyry: On Abstinence from Animal Food. London: Centaur Press Ltd., 1965.

Salvian, "To the Church" [Ad Ecclesiam], trans. Jeremiah F. O'Sullivan, in The Writings of Salvian the Presbyter. Fathers of the Church: A New Translation. NY: CIMA Publishing Co., 1947, 269-371. Written in Gaul in the mid 5th century; a treatise on possessions and alms.

Seneca. De Beneficiis, trans. J.W. Basore, Seneca: Moral Essays. LCL. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928–1935.

———. De Clementia, trans., J. W. Basore, Seneca: Moral Essays. LCL. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1928–1935.

The Theodosian Code and Novels and the Sirmondian Constitutions. Ed. and trans. Clyde Pharr. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1952.

MODERN WORKS

Allen, Pauline, Bronwen Neil, and Wendy Mayer, Preaching Poverty in Late Antiquity: Perceptions and Realities. Leipzig: Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, 2009.

Altaner, Berthold. "Augustinus, Gregor von Nazianz und Gregor von Nyssa: Quellenkritische Untersuchungen." Revue Bénédictine 61 (1951): 54–62.

Anderson, Knute, OSB. "Mysterious Relationships: Gregory of Nazianzos' Motivation of the Unmotivated toward Charitable Care of the Needy." Unpublished paper presented at the North American Patristics Society, Chicago, May 1992.

Andreau, Jean. La vie financière dans le monde romain: Les métiers de manieurs d'argent (IV siècle avant J.-C. – III siècle ap. J.-C). Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome 265: Rome, 1986.

Balch, David L., "Rich and Poor, Proud and Humble in Luke–Acts." In The Social World of the First Christians: Essays in Honor of Wayne A. Meeks, ed. L. Michael White and O. Larry Yarbrough, 214–233. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1995.

Barrett, David E. and Deborah A Frank. The Effects of Undernutrition on Children's Behavior, Food and Nutrition in History and Anthropology 6. Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach Science, 1987.

Becker, Adam H., "Anti-Judaism and Care for the Poor in Aphrahat's Demonstration 20," JECS 10 (2002):305-327.

Bell, Rudolph M. Holy Anorexia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Bernardi, Jean. La prédication des pères cappadociens: Le prédicateur et son auditoire, Publications de la Faculté des lettres et sciences humaines de l'Université de Montpellier 30. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1968.

Bethune, Alexander. Tales and Sketches of the Scottish Peasantry. Edinburgh: Adam & Charles Black, 1839.

Bolkestein, Hendrik. Wohlstätigkeit und Armenpflege im vorchristlichen altertum: Ein Betrag zum Problem 'Moral und Gesellschaft.' 1939. Reprint Gröningen: Verlag Bouma's Boekhuis N.V., 1967.

Bonz, Marianne Palmer. "The Jewish Donor Inscriptions from Aphrodisias: Are they both Third-century, and who are the Theosebeis?" HSCP 96 (1994): 281–99.

Boswell, John. The Kindness of Strangers: The Abandonment of Children in Western Europe from Late Antiquity to the Renaissance. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988.

Brakke, David. Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.

Brock, Sebastian and Susan Ashbrook Harvey, eds. and trans. Holy Women of the Syrian Orient. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

Brooks, Roger. Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah. Brown Judaic Studies 43. Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press, 1983.

Brousse, Émile. De L'assistance publique chez les Romains, Droit romaine; De L'assistance publique: Droit français. Paris: A. Derenne, 1876.

Brown, Peter. Authority and the Sacred: Aspects of the Christianization of the Roman World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

———. Poverty and Leadership in the Later Roman Empire. The Menahem Stern Jerusalem Lectures. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2002.

———. Power and Persuasion in Late Antiquity: Towards a Christian Empire. The Curti Lectures, 1988. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.

———. Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982.

———. The Making of Late Antiquity. Carl Newell Jackson Lecture. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.

———. The World of Late Antiquity. London: W. W. Norton and Co., 1971.

Bruck, Eberhard. "Kirchenväter und Seelteil," Zeitschrift der Savigny–Stiftung für Rechtsgeschichte: Romanistische Abteilung 72 (1955): 191–210.

———. Kirchenväter und soziales Erbrecht: Wanderungen religiöser Ideen durch die Rechte der östlichen und westlichen Welt, 1–75. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1956.

Bynum, Caroline Walker. Holy Feast and Holy Fast: The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. The new historicism: Studies in cultural poetics 1. Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1987.

Camp, John McK. II. "A Drought in the Late Eighth Century b.c." Hesperia 48 (1979): 397–411.

Camporesi, Piero. Bread of Dreams: Food and Fantasy in Early Modern Europe. Transl. David Gentilcore. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Caner, Daniel. Wandering Begging Monks: Spiritual Authority and the Promotion of Monasticism in Late Antiquity. The Transformation of the Classical Heritage 33; Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Carney, T. F. "The Emperor Claudius and the Grain Trade." In Hierdie bundel word opgedra aan Prof. H. L. Gonin, ed. D. M. Kriel, 39–57. Pretoria: Departement Latyn, 1971.

Casanova, Gerardo. "Le epigrafi di Terenouthis e la peste." Yale Classical Studies 28 (1985): 145–54.

Casson, Lionel. "The Grain Trade of the Hellenistic World. TAPA 85 (1954): 168–87.

Cavalcanti, Elena. "I due discorsi de pauperibus amandis di Gregorio di Nissa." Orientalia Christiana Periodica 44 (1978): 170–80.

Cheal, David. The Gift Economy. London: Routledge, 1988.

Colson, Elizabeth. "In Good Years and in Bad: Food Strategies of Self-Reliant Societies." Journal of Anthropological Research 35 (1979): 18–29.

Coulie, Bernard. Les richesses dans l'oeuvre de saint Grégoire de Nazianze: Étude littéraire et historique. Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain 32. Louvain: Université Catholique de Louvain, 1985.

——— (Ed.). Versiones Orientales, Repertorium Ibericum et Studia ad Editiones Curandas. CCSG 20; Corpus Nazianzenum 1. Turnhout: Brepols, 1988.

Countryman, L. William. The Rich Christian in the Church of the Early Empire: Contradictions and Accommodations. New York: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1980.

Cuesta, José Janini. La antropología y la medicina pastoral de San Gregorio de Nisa. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 1946.

Dalby, Andrew. Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece. London: Routledge, 1996.

Daley, Brian E. "1998 NAPS Presidential Address: Building a New City: The Cappadocian Fathers and the Rhetoric of Philanthropy." JECS 7 (1999): 431–61.

Dando, William A. "Man Made Famines: Past, Present and Future," with "Commentary" by Surinder M. Bhardwaj. In Agriculture Literature: Proud Heritage — Future Promise, A Bicentennial Symposium, Sept. 24–26, 1975, 323–41. Washington, D.C.: Graduate School Press, United States Department of Agriculture, 1977.

———. The Geography of Famine. Scripta series in geography. London: E. Arnold, 1980.

D'Arms, J. H. "Control, Companionship and Clientela: Some Social Functions of the Roman Communal Meal." Echoes du Monde Classique/Classical Views 28 n.s. 3 (1984): 327–48.

Delage, Pascal-Grégoire, ed., Les peres de l'Église et la voix des pauvres: Actes du 11e colloque de La Rochelle, les 2, 3 et 4 septembre 2005. La Rochelle (France): Association Histoire et Culture, 2006; ISBN 2-9521073-1-9.

Dembínska, M. "Diet: A comparison of food consumption between some eastern and western monasteries in the 4th–12th centuries." Byzantion 55 (1985): 431–54.

de Santa Ana, Julio. Good News to the Poor: The Challenge of the Poor in the History of the Church. Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1979.

Detienne, Marcel and Jean–Pierre Vernant. The Cuisine of Sacrifice among the Greeks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

De Vinne, Michael J. "The Advocacy of Empty Bellies: Episcopal Representation of the Poor in the Late Empire." Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1995.

Dirks, Robert. "Social Responses during Severe Food Shortages and Famine." Current Anthropology 21 (1980): 21–44.

Doran, Robert, trans., Stewards of the Poor: The Man of God, Rabbula, and Hiba in Fifth-Century Edessa. Cistercian Studies Series 208. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications, 2006.

Douglas, Mary and Baron Isherwood. The World of Goods: Toward an Anthropology of Consumption. London: Routledge, 1996.

Downs, R. E., Donna O. Kerner, and Stephen P. Reyna, eds. The Political Economy of African Famine. Food and Nutrition in History and Anthropology 9. Philadelphia: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1991.

Drèze, Jean and Amartya Sen. Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

——— , Eds. The Political Economy of Hunger. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Duncan–Jones, Richard. Structure and Scale in the Roman Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

———. The Economy of the Roman Empire: Quantitative Studies. 1974. Reprint Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press, 1982.

Dunn, Geoffrey D."The White Crown of Works: Cyprian's Early Pastoral Ministry of Almsgiving in Carthage," Church History 73.4 (2004): 715-740.

Dunn, Geoffrey D., David Luckensmeyer, and Lawrence Cross, eds. [title tbd]. Volume 5 in Australian Catholic University's series of publications from the "Prayer and Spirituality" conference, forthcoming (advance Table of Contents available at http://www.cecs.acu.edu.au/books/ps5toc.pdf).

Elm, Susanna. 'Virgins of God:'The Making of Asceticism in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

Faroqhi, Suraiya. Men of Modest Substance: House Owners and House Property in Seventeenth–Century Ankara and Kayseri. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Fellechner, Ernst. Askese und Caritas bei den drei Kappadokiern. Inaugural–Dissertation, Heidelberg, 1979.

Finn, Richard, O.P., Almsgiving in the Later Roman Empire: Christian Promotion and Practice 313-450. Oxford Classical Monographs; Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press, 2006.

Forster, Robert and Orest Ranum, eds. Biology of Man in History: Selections from the Annales. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.

———. Food and Drink in History: Selections from the Annales, économies, sociétés, civilisations. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979.

Frayn, Joan M. "Wild and cultivated plants: A note on the peasant economy of Roman Italy. JRS 65 (1975): 32–9.

Frederiksen, M. W. "Caesar, Cicero and the Problem of Debt," JRS 56 (1966): 128–41.

Frenkel, Miriam, and Yaacov Lev, eds. Charity and Giving in Monotheistic Religions. Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des islamischen Orients; Berlin and NY: Walter de Gruyter, 2009. Collection of papers presented at a conference on povery and charity in the ancient mediterranean world at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Hebrew University, 2007. Includes essays by scholars in Judaism, Islam, and early Christianity.

Friesen, Steven J. "Poverty in Pauline Studies: Beyond the So-called New Consensus," Journal for the Study of the New Testament 26.3 (2004):323-361; with response essays by John Barclay (pp. 363-366) and Peter Oakes (367-371).

Fuks, Alexander. Social Conflict in Ancient Greece. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, Hebrew University; Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1984.

Gain, Benôit. L'Église de Cappadoce au IVe siècle d'aprés la correspondance de Basile de Césarée. OCA 225. Rome: Pontificium Institutum Orientale, 1985.

Gapp, Kenneth Sperber. "The Universal Famine Under Claudius," HTR 28 (1935): 258–65.

Garnsey, P. and C. R. Whittaker, eds. Trade and Famine in Classical Antiquity. The Cambridge Philological Society, Suppl. 8 (1983): 56–65.

Garnsey, Peter. Famine and Food Supply in the Graeco–Roman World: Responses to Risk and Crisis. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Garrison, Roman. Redemptive Almsgiving in the Early Church. JSNT Suppl Ser. 77. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993.

Georgi, Dieter. Remembering the Poor: The History of Paul's Collection for Jerusalem. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1992.

Giet, S. Les Idées et L'Action Sociales de Saint Basile. Paris: Librairie Lecoffre, 1941.

Giet, Stanislas. "De Saint Basile à Sainte Ambroise: La condamnation du prêt a intérêt au IVe siècle,"RSR 32 (1944): 95–128.

Ginzburg, Lidiya. Blockade Diary. Trans. Alan Myers. London: Harvill Press, 1995.

Goody, Jack. Cooking, Cuisine and Class: A Study in Comparative Sociology. 1982. Reprint Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Gould, Graham. "Basil of Caesarea and the Problem of the Wealth of Monasteries." In The Church and Wealth, Ed. W. J. Sheils and D. Wood, 15–23. Studies in Church History 24. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987.

Gowers, Emily. The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

Gremillion, Joseph, ed. Food/Energy and the Major Faiths. Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1978.

Griffith, Sidney H. "Ephraem, the Deacon of Edessa, and the Church of the Empire." In Diakonia: Studies in Honor of Robert T. Meyer. Ed. Thomas Halton and Joseph P. Williman, 22–52. Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1986.

———. "Images of Ephraem: The Syrian Holy Man and his Church." Traditio 45 (1989–90): 7–33.

Grimm, Veronica. From Feasting to Fasting: The Evolution of a Sin. London: Routledge, 1996.

Grmek, Mirko D. Diseases in the Ancient Greek World. Trans. M. Muellner and L. Muellner. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Halstead, Paul and John O'Shea, eds. Bad Year Economics: Cultural Responses to Risk and Uncertainty. New Directions in Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Hamel, Gildas. Poverty and Charity in Roman Palestine, First Three Centuries c.e. Near Eastern Studies 23. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1990.

Hanawalt, Emily Albu and Carter Lindberg, eds. Through the Eye of a Needle: Judeo–Christian Roots of Social Welfare. Kirksville, Mo.: The Thomas Jefferson University Press, 1994.

Hands, A. R. Charity and Social Aid in Greece and Rome. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968.

Hanks, Thomas D. "Poor, Poverty." Anchor Bible Dictionary 5:403–24. New York: Doubleday, 1992.

Harakas, Stanley S. "Ethical Teaching in Saint Gregory the Theologian's Writings." GOTR 39 (1994): 141–50.

Harrison, Verna E. F. "Poverty, Social Involvement, and Life in Christ According to Saint Gregory the Theologian." GOTR 39 (1994): 151–64.

———. "Male and Female in Cappadocian Theology," JTS 41 (1990): 441–71.

Harvey, Susan Ashbrook. Asceticism and Society in Crisis. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

———. "The Sense of a Stylite: Perspectives on Simeon the Elder." VC 42 (1988): 376–94.

Hengel, Martin. Property and Riches in the Early Church: Aspects of a Social History of Early Christianity. Transl. John Bowden. London: S. C. M. Press, 1974.

Herrin, Judith. "Ideals of Charity, Realities of Welfare: The Philanthropic Activities of the Byzantine Church." In Church and People in Byzantium, ed. Rosemary Morris, 151–64. Birmingham: Center for Byzantine, Ottoman and Modern Greek Studies, 1990.

Herman, Menahem. The Tithes as Gift: The Institution in the Pentateuch and in light of Mauss's Prestation Theory. A Distinguished Dissertation. San Francisco: Mellen Research University Press, 1991.

Hirschfeld, Yizhar. The Judean Desert Monasteries in the Byzantine Period. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.

Holl, Karl. "Der Kirchenbegriff des Paulus in Seinem Verhältnis zu dem der Urgemeinde." In idem, Gesammelte Aussätze zur Kirchengeschichte, II: Der Osten,44–67. Tübingen: Verlag von J. C. B. Mohr, 1928).

Holman, Susan R. God Knows There's Need: Christian Responses to Poverty. NY: Oxford University Press, 2009.

———. "Healing the World With Righteousness? The Language of Social Justice in early Christian Homilies," in Miriam Frenkel and Yaacov Lev (eds.), Giving in Monotheistic Religions. Studien zur Geschichte und Kultur des islamischen Orients; Berlin and NY: Walter de Gruyter, forthcoming.

———. "God and the Poor in Early Christian Thought," in Andrew McGowan and Brian Daley (eds.), God in Early Christian Thought [volume in honor of the late Lloyd Patterson], Vigiliae Christianae Supplement; Leiden: Brill, 2008, in press.

———. "Constructed and Consumed: Everyday Life of the Poor in 4th Century Cappadocia," in W. Bowden, A. Gutteridge, and C. Machado (eds), Social and Political Life in Late Antiquity. Late Antique Archaeology 3; Leiden: Brill, 2005, 441-464.

———. "Rich City Burning: Social Welfare and Ecclesial Insecurity in Basil's Mission to Armenia," Journal of Early Christian Studies 12 (2004): 195-215.

———. The Hungry are Dying: Beggars and Bishops in Roman Cappadocia. Oxford Studies in Historical Theology. NY: Oxford University Press, 2001.

———. "Taxing Nazianzus: Gregory and the Other Julian." In M.F. Wiles and E.J. Yarnold (eds.), Studia Patristica XXXVII. Leuven: Peeters, 2001; pp. 103-109.

———. "The Entitled Poor: Human Rights Language in the Cappadocians." Pro Ecclesia 9 (2000):476-489.

———. "Healing the Social Leper in Gregory of Nyssa's and Gregory of Nazianzus's " " HTR 92 (1999): 283–309.

———. "The Hungry Body: Famine, Poverty and Identity in Basil's Hom. 8," JECS 7 (1999): 338–63.

———. "‘You Speculate on the Misery of the Poor': Usury as Civic Injustice in Basil of Caesarea's Second Homily on Psalm 14." In Organised Crime in Antiquity, ed. Keith Hopwood, 207–28. London: Duckworth with The Classical Press of Wales, 1999.

———. "Molded as Wax: Formation and Feeding of the Ancient Newborn," Helios 24 (1997): 77–95.

Holman, Susan R., ed. Wealth and Poverty in Early Church and Society. Holy Cross Studies in Patristic Theology and History; Grand Rapids: BakerAcademic, 2008.

Hynes, Eugene. "The Great Hunger and Irish Catholicism," Societas 8 (1978): 137–56.

Jaeger, Werner. Early Christian and Greek Paidea. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap, 1961.

Janes, Dominic. God and Gold in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Jeremias, Joachim. Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1969.

Jochim, Michael A. Strategies for Survival: Cultural Behavior in an Ecological Context. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

Johnson, Luke. Sharing Possessions: Mandate and Symbol of Faith. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1981.

Jonxis, J. H. P. "Nutritional Status of Dutch Children in Wartime." Nutrition Reviews 4 (1946): 97–9.

Kabiersch, Jürgen. Untersuchungen zum Begriff der Philanthropia bei dem Kaiser Julian. Klassisch–Philologische Studien, 21. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1960.

Kaczynski, Bernice M. "Some St. Gall Glosses on Greek Philanthropic Nomenclature." Speculum 58 (1983): 1008–17.

Kanafani–Zahar, Aïda. "‘Whoever Eats You is No Longer Hungry. Whoever Sees You Becomes Humble:' Bread and Identity in Lebanon." Trans. Davina Eisenberg. Food and Foodways 7 (1997): 45–71.

Keck, Leander E. "The Poor among the Saints in the New Testament." ZNW 56 (1965): 100–29.

———. "The Poor among the Saints in Jewish Christianity and Qumran." ZNW 57 (1966): 57–78.

Kerpel-Fronius, E. "Infantile Mortality in Budapest in the Year 1945." J Peds 30 (1947): 244–9.

Keys, Ancel, Josef Bro ek, Austin Henschel and Olaf Mickelson. The Biology of Starvation. 2 vols. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1950.

Kidd, Reggie M. Wealth and Beneficience in the Pastoral Epistles: A 'Bourgeois' Form of Early Christianity? Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990.

Kislinger, Ewald. "Kaiser Julian und die (Christlichen) Xenodocheia." In Byzantios: Festschrift für Hubert Hunger zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. W. Hörandner, J. Koder, O. Kresten, E. Trapp, 171–84. Wien: Ernst Becvar 1984.

Krueger, Derek. Symeon the Holy Fool: Leontius' ‘Life' and the Late Antique City. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Lallemand, Léon. Histoire de la charité. 4 vols. Paris: A. Picard, 1902-1912.

Liaou, Angeliki E. "The Church, Economic Thought and Economic Practice." In The Christian East: Its Institutions & Its Thoughts, A Critical Reflection, ed. Robert F. Taft, 435–64. OCA 251. Rome: Pontificio Instituto Orientale, 1996.

Lim, Richard. Public Disputation, Power and Social Order in Late Antiquity. The Transformation of the Classical Heritage. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Lindberg, Carter. "Through a Glass Darkly: A History of the Church's Vision of the Poor and Poverty." The Ecumenical Review 33 (1981): 37–52.

Longenecker, Bruce W. and Kelly D. Liebengood, eds. Engaging Economics: New Testament Scenarios and Early Christian Reception. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2009.

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