ONLINE TEXTS FROM ENGLISH RELIGIOUS HISTORY
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TREASURY of HIDDEN SECRETS A 17th-century housewives' handbook of cookery, herbals, and medicine
attributed to John Partridge

Part I: On Fruits Etc.

1. To make a Marchpane.

Take half a pound of blanched Almonds, and of white Suger a quarter of a pound, of Rose water halfe an ounce, and of Damaske water as much: beat the Almonds with a little of the same water, and grind them till they be small: set them on a few coales of fire till they war thicke, then beat them againe with suger fine: then mixe the sweet waters and them together, and so gather them, and fashion your Marchpane: then take wafer-cakes of the broadest making, cut them square, paste them together with a little liquor, and when you have made them as broad as will serve your purpose, have ready made a hoope of a greene bezell wand, of the thicknesse of half an inch, on the inner side smooth, without any knags: laie this hoope upon your Wafer-cakes aforesaid, and then fill your hoope with the geare above-named, the same driven smooth above with the back of a silver spoone, as ye doe a Tart, and cut away all the parts of the cakes, then close by the outside of the hoope with a sharpe knife, that it may be round: then having white paper underneath it, set it upon a warme hearth, or upon an instrument of Iron or brasse made for the same purpose, or into an Oven, after the bread is taken out, so it be not stopped: it may not bake, but only be hard and tharow dried, and ye may, while it is moist, flicke it full of Comfets of sundrie colours in a comely order, ye may moist it over with Rose-water and Suger together: make it smooth, and set it into the Oven or other Instrument, the clearer it is like a Lanterne borne, so much the more commended. If it be through dried & kept in a drie and warme aire, a Marchpane will last many yeares. It is a comfortable meat, meete for weake folkes, such as have lost the tast of meats by much and long sickness. The greatest secret that is in making this cleare, is with a little fine flowre of Rice, Rose-water, and suger beaten together, and laid thin over the Marchpane ere it goe to drying. This will make it shine like Ice, as Ladies report.

2. To gild a Marchpane, or any other kinde of Tart

Take and cut your leafe of gold, as it lyeth upon the book into square pieces like dice, and with a Conies tails end moistned a little, take the gold by the one corner, lay it on the place, being first made moist, and with another taile of a Conie-oyle, paste the gold downe close. And if you will have the forme of an Hart, or of the name of Jesus, or any other strange thing whatsoever, cut the same through a piece of paper, and laie the paper upon your Marchpane, and Tart: then make the void place of the paper moist with Rose-water, lay on your gold, presse it downe, take off your paper, and there remaineth behind in gold, the paint cut in the said paper.

3. To bake Quinces

Pare them, take out the coare, parboile them in water till they be tender, let the water run from them till they be drie: Then put in every coffin one Quince, in it a good quantitie of marrow. Also take Suger, Cinnamon, and a little Ginger, and fill the Coffin therewith, close it, let it bake an houre, and so serve it.

4. To keep Quinces unpared all the year

Take ripe Quinces, and at the great end cut out a simple, then take out the coare cleane, and top the hole againe with the same stopple (but pare them not) and perboile them a little, take them up, and let the water draine from them, then put all the coares, and some of the smallest Quinces in little pieces also cut, into the water wherein all the Quinces were parboiled, and them tthem seeth till the liquor be as thick as molten fire that Painters occupie, then take it from the fire, and let it coole: in the meane season couch your cold Quinces in a barrell, or in an earthen pot, the great end downward (if the stopple be out, it makes no matter) and one upon another. Then put the liquor in, that it be an handfull over and above them: cover them close, and after 4 or 5 daies looke to them, and when you see the liquor dunke downe, put in more of the same, which you purposely kept to cover them, as before: then lay a board upon them, and a stone, that they rise not, and cover the vessell close with a thick cloth folded, that it take no aire, so let them remaine. And when ye intend to occupie some of them, uncover the vessel, and ye shall find a creame covering the whole liquor, breake it in the middest, turne it with your hand, then take out your fruit in order, beginning in the midst first, then by the sides, so that you remove none, if it may be, but those that they take away, and every time you breake the creame, turne it over again into his place, for you must know, that the creame keepeth out the aire, and keepeth in the strength of the sirrop, therefore it maketh such to the conservation of the fruit to save it, and also to see the vessell close covered. Also when you will bake your Quinces, wash them well and cleane in warm water, and bake them as before it is written.

5. To make Vineger of Roses

In Summer time when Roses blow, gather them, ere they be full fyred or blowne out, and in drie weather, pluck the leaves, let them lie halfe a day upon a faire boord, then have a vessell with Vineger of one or two gallons (if you will make so much Roset:) put therein a great quantitie of the said leaves, stop the vessell close after that ye have stirred them well together; let it stand a day and a night, then divide your Vineger and Rose-leaves together in two parts, put them in two great Glasses, and put in rose-leaves enough: stop the glasses close, set them upon a shelfe under a wall side on the South side without your house, where the Sunne may come to them the most part of the day; let them stand there all the whole Summer long, and then straine the Vinegar from the Roses, and keepe the leaves, and put in new leaves of half a daies gathering, the Vinegar will have the more odour of the Rose.

You may use in stead of Vineger, Wine, that it may wax eager, and receive the virtue of the Roses both at once.

Moreover, you may make your Vineger of Wine White, Red, or Claret: but the Red doth most binde the belly, and the White doth most loose.

Also, the Damaske Rose is not so great a binder as the red Rose, and the White looseth most of all: Hereof you may make Vineger roset.

Thus also you make make Vinegar of Violets, or of Elderne flowers; but you must first gather and use your flowers of Elderne, as shall be showed hereafter, when we speake of making conserve of Elderne flowers.

6. To make Paste of Suger, whereof may be made all manner of fruits and other fine things with their forme: as Platters, Dishes, Glasses, Cups, and such like things, wherewith you may furnish a Table, and when you have done, you may eat them up. A pleasant conceit for them that sit at the Table

Take Gum Dragant, as much as you will, and steepe it in Rose-water untill it be mollified, and for foure ounces of suger, take of it the bignesse of a beane, the juyce of Lemons, a Wallnut shell full, and a little of the white of an Egge: but you must first take the Gum, and beat it so much with a pestle in a morter of white marble, or brasse, untill it becomes like water, then put to it the juyce with the white of the Egge, incorporated well together. This done, take four ounces of fine white Suger well beaten to powder, and cast it into the morter by little and little, until it be turned into the forme of paste: then take it out of the said Morter, and bray it upon the powder of sugar, as it were meale or flowre, untill all be like paste, to the end you may turne it, and fashion it, which way you will: when you have brought your paste to this forme, spread it abroad with Cinnamon upon great or small leaves, as you shall thinke it good, and so shall you forme and make what things you will, as is aforesaid, with such fine conceits as many serve at table, taking heed that there stand no hot thing nigh unto it. At the end of the banquet they may breake all, and eat the Platters, Dishes, Glasses, Cups, and such like: for this paste is delicate and savourous. If you will make a thing of more finenesse then this, make a Tart of Almondes stamped wite Suger and Rose-water of like sort that Marchpanes be made of: this shall you laie betweene two pasts of such vessels, or fruits, or some other thing, as you shall think good.

7. To make Orange Comfets

Take Orenge pillings, laie them in faire water a day and light, then seeth them in white Wine: then take them out of the Wine, and put them in an earthen vat, and put therein Suger, Cinnamon, Cloves, and Mace whole, and seeth them together without any other liquor, and so it is made.

8. To make fine blanch powder for rosted Quinces

Take fine Suger halfe a pound, beaten in a hot morter to fine powder, of white Ginger pared half an ounce, of chosen Cinnamon a quarter of an ounce, beaten readie to fine powder, mixe them well together, and if you have it most excellent, cast two spoonfull of Rose or Damaske water in beating of the suger.

9. To preserve Quinces in sirrop condite, alway readie to be served in whole, in quarters

After your Quinces are coared and pared, seeth them till they be tender and soft: then laie them out till they be cold, in the meane time, take of the same liquor three quarts or more, (according to the number of your Quinces which ye will keep) and put therein the coares and some other small pieces, seethe them in the liquor, to make the sirrop strong: straine them, and put into the liquor, being two or three quarts, one pint of Rose water, and for every quart of liquor one pint of Rose water, and for every quart of liquor, one halfe pound of Suger, seeth them again together on a soft fire of coales till the Suger be incorporated with the liquor, then put in your Quinces, let them seeth softly till you perceive that your sirrop is as thicke as like Honey, the let them to coole, and take them out, lay them in a Tray or Platter till they be cold: then take one once of bruised Cinnamon, and some whole Cloves, put them with some of the Cinamon into the sirrop, and when it is cold, lay a lard? of Quinces in your glasse (called a ge?elin glasse) or in an earthen pot well glazed: then strew a little of your Cinnamon upon your Quinces, then poure some sirrop, lay on another lard of Quinces, and againe of your spices and sirrop, and so forth, till you have done, and cover them two fingers over with sirrop above, cover them close: and within three or foure dayes looke to them: and when you find the sirrop shrunken down, put in more, and so reserve them. These are to be served in with sirrop. See that the Quinces be tenderly sodden, and the sirrop thicke and strong enough.

10. Plummes condict in sirrop

Take half a pound of Suger, half a pint of Rose-water, and a pint of faire raine water, or of some other distilled water, seeth the Suger, and the two waters upon a soft fire of coales till the one halfe be consumed: then take it from the fire, and when it leaveth boiling, put therein halfe a pound of ripe Damasins, or other Plums, and set it againe on the embers, and keepe it in like heat, till the Plums be soft by the space of an houre, if need be: then put in some Cloves bruised, and when it is cold, keepe it in a Glasse, or in an earthen Galiper: the stronger the sirrop is with Suger, the better it will continue. Some put into the sirrop Cinnamon, Saunders, Nutmegs, Cloves, and a little Ginger, seeth them not hastily, for feare of much breaking.

11. To make Walnuts of sirrop

Take your Nuts ten dayes before Midsummer day, lay them in water and change them morning and evening, till nine or ten daies be past, then pare off as thin as ye can the utter rinde, but the very ground of them, and seeth them in such sirrop as ye do Orenges, and when it is sodden, ye must keep them in a new sirrop of the sme making, or else make a sirrop to seeth them in of clarified hony, take raine water, for lacke of that, take other water, take three times as much water as ye do honey and seeth it long and fastly, then as the skinne doth rise, take it off, and so let it seeth till it be cleane scummed, and assay it upon your naile; if it tarry there, it is thick enough; else not; there is all, and seeth your Nuts therein, and put them in a sirrop of suger.

12. To make Marmalade of Quinces

After that your Quinces are sodden, ready to be kept condite as before in the chapter is written, then with some of your liquir wherein they were sodden (but without any spice) beat them, and draw them as ye would a Tart: Then put some over the fire, and seeth them softly, and in seething strew by little and little of powder of Suger, the weight of the Quinces or more, as your taste shall tell you. Stirre it continually, put thereto some pure Rose-water, or Damaske water, let it seeth on height till it be well standing, which thing ye may know, by taking some of it upon a cold knife, and let it coole, if it be stiffe, then take it off and box it while it is warme, and set it in a warm and drie aire; if you will gild your marmalade, do as is afore spoken of a Marchpane.

The best making of Marmalade is when the Quinces have laine long, and are through ripe, and are very yellow, as in Lent season.
And for as much as Quinces are binding, and therefore not good for some sicke folks costive, it is necessary to put a good many of ripe Apples of good verdure, as Renet, Pippin, Larding, Russeting, Pomerrial, Rex Pomurem, or any other Apple that is pleasant, raw among them, being first drawne from a Tart, and then sodden among the other matter of Quinces. Thus shall you make your Marmalade somewhat soupie and also increase the quantity and vertue of the same, especially if it be well dashed with sweet water.

13. To make marmalade of Damasins or Prunes

Take Damasins which are ripe, boyle them on the fire with a little faire water, until they be soft; then draw them thorow a courie boulter as ye make a Tart, set on the fire againe, seeth it on height with Sufficient Suger as you due your Quinces, dash it with sweet water, &c., and box it.

If you will make it of Prunes, doe likewise put some Apples to it as you did to your Quinces. Like wise you may make Marmalade of Wardens, Peares, Apples, and Medlers, Cervise, Cherries, or Strawberries, every one by himselfe, or else mix it together as you thinke good.

14. To make Succade of peeles of Orenges or limons

First, take off your paeles by quarters, and seeth them in faire water, from three quarts to three pints; then take them out, and put to as much more water, and seeth them likewise, and do so again, till the water wherein they are sodden have no bitterness of all of the pæles, then are they ready. Now prepare a sirrop as ye dae for Quinces condict in the sirrop, in the ninth Chapter before written, seeth them in a glasse or pot.

15. To make Greene Ginger

Take the rases of cased Ginger of the fairest, and us them as followeth: Lay a broad lane of faire sand upon a faire floore on the ground, halfe a foot thicke, then lay your rases of Ginger upon the sand, four or five inches thicke, sprinkle the sand over with faire water twice every day, that it may be moist, then daily doe till ye shall perceive your rases to be soft. Then rake up your rases, wash them, and scrape them cleane, have a sirrop ready made as is above said, seeth them in it till they be well seasoned: take them up, and with some of the sirrop cast them or put them into a pot of stone.

16. To make Manus Christi

Take halfe a pound of fine white Suger, put thereto foure ounces of Rosewater, seeth them upon a soft fire of coals, till the water be consumed and the Suger is become hard: then put therein a quarter of an ounce of the powder of Pearles, stirre them together, put for every spoonfull a piece of a leafe of gold cut of purpose, cast them upon a leafe of white paper, being first anointed with sweet Butter for cleaving to.

17. To make Aqua Composica

Take 4 gallons of the best Ale, drawne from the yeast 24 houres after it hath stood tuned and put it into a close vessell, whereon you shall put these herbs following and four ounces of Liquoris scraped and bruised in a morter, and so much Aniseed well garbled, then stir them together twice a day for the space of three daies, and let them stand 24 houres after: then put them into the stilling pot, and (if you please) you may also put in the lees Palmesey or Sacke, or any other distilled waters, but fill not your pot too full, then set on your Limbeck, and close it fast to the pot, and keepe a soft fire under it. These are the herbs with their quantities:

Isop, Lime, Rosemary, Sage, Parsley, Borage, Longebeefe, red Fennell, Sorrell, Harte-tongue, Bay-leaves, Buglosse, Scavias, Marigold, Costmary, Ribwort, Sentory, Liverwort, Fumitory, of each a handfull.

Marjorum gentle, Basill, Mints, Champane, Woodbinde, Patience, Valerian, Endive, Wormewood, Pentroyall, Cammomill, of each halfe a handfull.

18. To make Aqua vitae

Take four gallons of strong Ale or White Ices, and put them in a vessell, and cover it well: then put to it three or foure handfull of Rosemary, Peniroyall, Liverwoort, Harts-tongue, or any other good herbs, and stirre them together twice or thrice a day, for the space of foure dayes: then put them in a brasse pot, and still with a temperate fire, for else you burne your pot and lose your Aqua vitae, which will stinke and looke red: Also look you keepe your water in a temper, and when it is very hot let it out, and put in cold water againe into the upper part of the Limbeck, and so change your water as it were to hot.

Take a spoonfull from under the spout, and light it with a paper, and if it burne cleane out, it is good else not.

19. How to make divers necessary Oyles of great vertue

Oleum Hipirici:
Take the tops of flowres of S. Johns wort, that hath red juyce, three ounces, shred them small, and lay them to steep in sweet wine, as much as needeth three dayes: then boyle them in a double glasse, close stopt, and presse out the liquor from them, which doth foure times with fresh flowres, and a little more wine, if any be wasted, if not, take the Wine the fourth time strained, put to it Terebinthii 5 ounces: of good Oyle six ounces, and of Saffron a scruple, to let them boile till the wine be consumed: which powred cleare out from the grounds, reserve to be used.

It is hot and dry, and binding, wherefore it healeth the cuts and wounds of the sinewes, taketh away the peine of the hips, thighes, and bladder, and helpeth the Urine.

Oyle of Rue:
Take blossoms and tops of Rue so many as you list, which small shred put into some glazin vessell, and powre out so much sweet Oyle as will cover them, and close stopt, let it stand in the Sun, or in some other hot place five dayes: then boile it, and being strained from the herbs, take so many fresh herbs, and use it as aforesaid four or five times, and reserve it to use as aforesaid.

It is hot, opening, resolving, and mitigating paine: it heateth the reynes, bladder, and Matrix, it taketh away the paines of them, and the Collick, if the belly be annointed therewith, or a glister made therewith, it is good for the sinewes, helpeth the Cramp, and putteth away cold humours.

Oyle of Dill:
Take the flowres and leaves of Dill, &c. as afore of the Rue. It mitigateth paine, openeth the Pores, provoketh sweat, resolveth vapors, impostumes, swellings, and hardnes in any place, and if the back-bone be anointed it easeth the paines and grewing of Feavers.

Oyle of Elder flowres in the same manner:
It soupleth, cleanseth the skin, helpeth the weaknesse of the Liver, and the stopping of the same, and greatly assuageth the paine of the joynts.

Oyle of the leaves and flowres of Cammomile as Rue and Dill:
It is good against the Pleurisie, openeth the Pores, resolveth vapors: correcteth the chill quality of humours, and is good for the sinewes and abateth the pain marvellously.

Oyle of sweet Mints, as aforesaid:
It comforteth a weak stomacke, stayes vomite, moves appetite, helpeth concoction, and taketh away loathsomeness.

Oyle of Wormwood:
It is hot, and comforteth the parts that are too much cooled, chiefly the stomacke, provoketh appetite, taketh away obstructions, and killeth wormes.

Oyle of Roses, and Rose buds:
It is good against inflammations, it cooleth the burning and boyling of the stomacke, and fretting of the bowels, if it be given in glister, and to anoint the tooth, it taketh away the ache.

Of the Oyle of Violet flowres:
It is good against all inflammations and heat.

To make Oyle of Earth-wormes:
Take of Earth-wormes halfe a pound, of good Oyle two pounds, of sweet wine five ounces: boile all together untill the wine be quite consumed, then straine it and keepe it. This Oyle is good for the sinewes that are cold, and helpeth the paine in the joynts.

Oleum Benedictum
Take of Oile two pound, Storax, Calamite, Laudanum, Olivenum, Saffron, Gum Arabick, Madder, gum of the Ivy Tree, Alloes, Succatrine, Mastick, Cloves, Galingale, Cinamon, Nutmeg, Cucubes two ounces, Gum Gllamy a pound, Mirrhe, Bdellium halfe an ounce, Galbanum six ounces, Spike an ounce, Rosin of the Pine tree, (?)Armeniack, Opopanax two drams: beat all to powder that is to be beaten, and mix it with the Oile, and put all into a stillitorie or glasse, with the head and receiver so closed that no aire come out, setting your limbeck upon a soft fire twelve houres, increasing your fire from six hours to six, till all be stilled. This done, beat all the residence in the bottom of the stille to fine powder, and with the same oile distill it the second and third time as afore and it shall be as it were Balme.

It is good against Crampes, Palsies, paines of the joynts, cold Catars, green wounds and Ulcers, it comforteth the spirits, openeth obstructions, one drop in the eare helpeth the hearing: A Rose-cake dipped in it and laid to the Temples, helpeth the Migrim, and taketh away the swimming of the head: an ounce in sweet wine drunk three dayes together cureth the disease of the lungs, and the Quartain Feaver. If you give a spoonful with wine thirty daies with a little powder of Piony roots, it helpeth the falling sicknesse; so that if the coronall commissure be also anointed, it easeth the paine of the French Pox, and is good against the stinging of any venemous beasts, and for all diseases of the sinewes.

20. To make Conserve of Roses, or other flowers

Take buds of red roses somewhat before they be ready to spread: cut the red part of the leaves from the white, and beate and grinde them in a stone morter with a pestle of wood, and to every ounce of Roses, put three ounces of Suger in the grinding (after the leaves are well beaten) and grinde them together till they be perfectly incorporated, then put it in a glasse made of purpose, or else in an earthen pot, stop it close, and so keepe it. Thus you may make Conserves of all kinde of flowres commonly used for Conserves.

The vertue of Conserve of Roses

Conserve of Roses comforteth the stomacke, the heat, and all the bowels, it mollifieth and softneth the belly, and is good against black Choler and Melancholiy. Conserve of white Roses doth lose the belly more then the red.

21. To make conserve of Violets

Take the flowres of Violets and pick them from the stalke, beat and grinde them with suger as you did your Roses: to these put double the weight of Suger to the weight of Violets but to all flowres put three parts of suger to one part of the flowres.

-The vertue of the same.
Conserve of Violet flowres is good against the heat and inflammation of Choler, it quencheth thirstiness, it maketh the belly moist and soluble.

22. The vertue of conserve of Buglosse

Conserve of Buglosse flowres comforteth the heart, it is good for the franticke, and for the melancholy; it is good for the Syncop and sownding, it taketh away heart burning and trembling of the heart or stomacke, it profiteth against choler.


23. The vertue of conserves of Borrage

Conserve of Borage flowres is of like vertue; it is especially good against black choler or Melancholy, it also maketh one merry.

24. The vertue of conserve of Rosemary.

Conserve of the flowres of Rosemary comforteth the cold and moist brayne, it comforts also the sinewes, it is good against melancholiy and flegme.

25. To keep Cherries condict, or gooseberries

Make your Sirrop as for Plums, then take halfe a pound of Cherries, and cut off halfe the length of the stalke of every Cherrie, put them in the sirrop, and use them as you did the Plummes. Put in what spice pleaseth you, and to keep it as before is written: but make your sirrop strong enough of suger, lest it wax hoare and corrupt: then must ye make a new sirrop stronger of suger, and put the cheries in it to keepe, as before is said: Thus may you do with Gooseberries to make of them Tarts or sauces all the yeere long, saving that Gooseberries may be well sodden without breaking, because of their rough skin, so it be softly and diligently done.

26. To make a Conserve or Jelly of Quinces, after my Lady Gray Clements sort, unstrained

Take six pints of faire water, put in a faire vessell, put thereto the whites of five Egges, and with your hand beat the water and the Egges together, till you shall see your liquor rise with great fothe: then put into your liquor six pounds of Suger, to six pints of water, that is halfe measure, if ye make it at Michaelmass or at Alholwentide: after that: five pounds and a halfe of Suger will serve five pints of water. Then set your liquor, Egges, and Suger on the fire, and let them seethe till the scum arise: then take it off and scum it cleane, and set it on the fire againe, and scum it still as long as there will any foule thing or scum arise. Then put in twelve pound of Quinces with the coares taken out, so let them boile softly, and still scum if any thing doe arise: and when it beginneth to look red, lay a drop of it upon a paper, and when ye finde that it will stand upon the Paper, then it is sodden enough: then take it off, and let it run thorow a fine haire sive into your boxes, and with a spoone take off the froth above, and this will keepe, but it must seeth soberly, and no rath fire, but a continuall reasonable fire.

27. To preserve Quinces all the yeare, as it was used for King Edward.

Take your Quinces and pare them, and seethe them in cleare water till they be tender, then put the water from them: then take Suger, and put water to it, to a pound and a halfe of Suger, put halfe a pint of Rosewater, so seeth them together till they be thicke like a sirrop, and seethe them all till they be browne. Then take out the Quinces, and let the sirrop seeth againe till it be somewhat thicke, as ye for the sirrop of greene Ginger. Then put in your Quinces againe, and let them seeth three or foure Pater Nosters whiles, then take them from the fire, and put them in a stone pot, or a little vessil of wood, and thus keepe them all the yeere: If you list to put Cinnamon you must put to every five pound of Suger one ounce of Cinamon and if you have no store of Rosewater, you may make the same sirrop of running water, but it will not be so pleasant as Rosewater, but it will doe very well.

28. To make Quinces in sirrop

Take thirty Quinces, and take out the coares of them, and pare them, and ever as they be pared, cast them in faire water: when they are all pared, take a pot of faire water, and put your Quinces in it, let them seethe till they be so tender, that ye may put a straw or rush through them: then take to your Quinces five or six pounds of Suger, and take some cleane water, as much as ye thinke will cover your Quinces, and put into this water your Suger, and four or five whites of Egges all to beaten, so that there may rise upon them a froth. Then put them so dressed into your water with Suger, and let that stand upon the fire, till it hath sodden a wallop or twaine. Then take a piece of a woolen blanket, and poure this water through with Suger and all: then put this water into a faire pot, and the Quinces together, and let them seethe till your Quinces be very tender, and ever as there riseth any white or anything, from it off cleane. Then take out your Quinces, and let your sirrop boyle till a spoon will stand in it, and when your sirrop is cold, put in your Quinces and stop it close, and within three dayes looke upon it againe, and if the sirrop way thicke, take more water and Suger, and dresse it as afore written, and when you have put it through a cleane cloth, then take the Quinces and the new sirrop, and put all together, and let them seethe a while: then take out your Quinces and let the rest seeth till it come to a sirrop, and when your sirrop is cold put your Quinces in, and so keepe them all the yeere, but be sure that your sirrop be thicke enough, or else it will marre all: you may not put in your Quinces at the secend seething, till your sirrop be somewhat thicke, for they be not put in the seeth, but to soke cut the watriness of the sirrop, and therefore they may seeth but a little while of the second seething.

29. To make conserve of Damsons

Take Damasins and wash them in faire water, and drie them with a cloth, and put them in an earthen pot, and fill your pot with them, and cover your pot with a piece of paste, and put your pot in an empty Oven, which was filled with bread, and then put in your pot after the bread is out and stop it very close, and let it stand four houres. Then take it out, and put your Damasins in a piece of thicke Canves, and let the liquor that runneth from them come into a faire pan and in any wise breake not the Damasins that are in the cloth to have more liquor, for you must have no liquor but that which commeth from them. Then take a faire boyling pan, and put your liquor in it, and put to it as much beaten Suger of the finest, as ye thinke will make it sweete, and seethe it upon a quick fire, and when ye thinke it is enough, take a sawcer, and with your stirring-sticke let a drop fall upon your sawcers side, and if it be enough, it will be it will be somewhat stiffe. Then take it from the fire and put it into your box, also you must stirre it still.

30. To preserve Damasins

You must take for every pound of Damasins halfe a pound of Suger. First make your sirrop with Suger and Rose-water, and when you have boiled it awhile, then put in your Damasins, so that they lie not too neare together, so let them boile till they be red at the stone, then take them out, and put them in a Platter, and then put in more to the same sirrop, and let them boile as the other did: and when they be all boiled and cold, close the skinnes as close as ye can, and poure on the liquor being hot, and so let them stand a while or ever that you put them into the glasse.

31. To make Wardens in sirrop

Take Wardens, and cast them in a faire pot, and boile them till they be tender, then take them up and pare them, and cut them in two or three pieces, and take powder of Cinnamon a good quantity, and put it in red Wine, and straine them, and cast thereto Suger. Then put it in an earthen pot, and let it boile together, and when they are well boiled, take powder of Ginger, and colour it with Saffron, and looke that it be poynat and dulet.

32. To make Prunes in sirrop

Take Prunes, and put Claret Wine to them, and Suger, as much as you thinke will make them pleasant, let all these seethe together till ye thinke the Liquor looke like a sirrop, and that your Prunes be well swollen: and so keep them in a vessell as ye doe green Ginger.

33. The vertue of conserve of Succorie

Conserve of Succorie is good against yellow and black Choller, and for the burning and heat of hot feavers.

34. The vertue of Conserve of Eldern flowres

Conserve of Elder is against the Morphew, it cleanseth the stomack and the whole body from scabs.

Gather the clusters or bunches whereon the flowres grow, when they are new blowne or fyred, lay them upon a faire sheet abroad to a chamber a day or two, till ye shall perceive the flowre will shake off and fall away: then pick them cleane, and make thereof conserve as you do of other flowres.
And whereas it is more wholesome then pleasant, therefore put some other conserve (such as ye like) amongst it when ye will use it.

35. The vertue of Conserve of Sorrell

Conserve of Sorrell is good against all kinde of heats of the stomacke, and other principall parts of the bodie, and against yellow choller.

Take leaves of Sorrell, wash them cleane, and shake off the water cleane, or else tarry till the water be dried clean: beat them and grinde them with Suger, as above, & then keepe them.

36. The vertue of conserve of Maiden haire

Conserve of the leaves of Maiden-haire, is good against the sicknesse of the side, called the Plewrisse, and for all the diseases of the brest and of the Lights, and in all maladies of Melancholiy, and against red choller.
Make it as ye do conserve of Sorrell.

37. To make conserve of Elicampana roots

Take the roots of Elicampana, wash them cleane, slice them into pieces as big as your thumbe, seethe them in faire water till they be tender, take them up and powre them, and draw them thorow a haire sive: put thereto in the second seething the double or treble weight of Suger, and when the Suger is perfectly incorporated, take it off, and keepe it.

The vertue of the same.

Conserve of Eelecampana is a good comfort to the stomacke, and the nourishing of the members, it marvellously looseth tough fleame, dissolveth and consumeth the same, by the siege it avoideth it.

38. To make conserve of Acornes or Gladen, with the vertue of the same

Take the roots of yellow Flower-de-luce: which groweth in moist ground, otherwise called Flagge-root: wash them and scrape them seeth them, and order them as ye do of Elicampana, now last before rehearsed, and so keepe it. This conserve is good against all sicknesse of the braine, and sinewed, & against all diseases of fleame. Unto women it openeth naturall caurse and tearmes.

And you must generally learne, that in making conserves, fruits and roots are made with fire and seething: Moreover, the more Suger and honey is put into them, so it be not past three pounds to one, the conserve shall continue the better.

39. To make conserve of Strawberries, with the vertue of the same

Take Strawberries one quart, cleane picked and washed, set them on the fire till they be soft, straine them, put thereto two times as much Suger in powder as the weight of the Strawberries, put it in a glass or earthen pot well glazed.
The vertue of the same
The conserve of Strawberries is good against a hot liver, burning of the stomache, and specially in the fervent heat of an ague.

40. To make conserve of Cherries and Barberries

In like sort you must make conserve of Cherries, and also of Barberries, saving that these require more Suger than the others do, which are not so sowre as they be.

Here is to be noted, that of conserve of fruits, may be made Marmalade: for when your conserve is sufficiently sodden, & ready to be taken off, then seethe it more on height, and it will be Marmalade. Moreover some make their conserve, Marmalade and sirriop with cleanne Suger, some with cleane honey clarified, some with Suger and honey together: and after the opinion of some great Clarkes, honey is more wholesome, though it be not toothsome as suger.

41. To make all kinds of sirrops

Take Buglosse, Borage, white Endive, of each one handfull, of it Rosemary, Lime, Hysop, Winter savory, of each halfe a handfull; seethe them (being first broken betweene your hands) in three quarts of water, unto three pints, then straine it, and put in the liquor whole Cloves an ounce, powder of Cinnamon half an ounce, powder of Ginger a quarter of an ounce, one Nutmeg in powder, of Suger half a pound and more: let them seeth upon a soft fire, well stirred for burning to, untill it come to the thicknesses of life Hony, then keepe it in Gally pots. If you put one pint of Palmesey in the second seething, it will be better. When it is perfect, have six graines of fine muske in powder: stirre it among your sirrop as ye put it into your Gally-pot, and cover it.

This sirrop will last many yeares, and is excellent against sownding and faintnesse of heart: it comforteth the braines and sinewes, if it be used as much as a Hazel nut at once, at your pleasure.

42. A Violet powder for Woollen Clothes and Furres

Take of Tress two ounces, of Calamus Aromaticus three quarters of an ounce, of Cypres, of Galingale, of Spikenard, of rose leaves dried, of each a quarter of an ounce, of Cloves, of Spike, of Lavender flowres, of each halfe an ounce, of Nigella Romana a quarter of an ounce, of Benjamin, of Storax Calamit, of each half an ounce, let them be all fine beaten and searced. Then take five or six graines of Muske, dissolve it in Rose-water, and sprinkle the water upon the powder and turne it up and down in the sprinkling, till it have drunk up the water, when it is dry, keepe it in bags of silke.

43. A sweet powder for Napery; and all Pressed Clothes

Take of sweet Marjorum (that which is hoary is the sweeter) when it hath in him seeds ripe, cut the branches, so that the root may spring againe: when the Marjoram is dried, then rub out the seeds and keepe them to sow about Easter, and the huske and leaves that grow about the seeds take for your purpose, rub them small (for if you beat them to powder in a morter, they will lose the most part of their savour) then take of white Saunders, or grey Saunders, but looke that they be new of right sweet odour, for if the be old and have no pleasant and quick odour, they are nothing worth. Take j say of these sweet Saunders beaten into fine powder, an ounce, and to it into an ounce of your sweet Marjorum rubbed between your hands, as before is said. and if you put one or two graines of Musk thereunto for your wearing Linnen, it is the better, sow these up in a Silke bag together, and lay it among your linnen: of such bags have a dozen or two, which there will continue many years, and when you looke to your linnen then chafe each of the bags between your hands, that they may yield out their sweet odour. Moreover, in the Summer time gather red roses in faire weather, so soone as they be blowne and opened, lay them upon a Table, a Bed, or faire floore of boords, and now and then remove them, lest they moulde and wax fustie. When they are drie, picke off the leaves, that you may have two pecks of them, then strew them among, and between the boughts and foldings of your linnen, with one handfull of drie Spike flowres, to six handfulls of drie Roses, and lay your sweet bags among them. Be sure that your linnen be ever thorough drie ere ever ye lay them up, or else the Rose will waxe hore: set your coffer in a dry aire, and in the Winter time or hot weather, when you perceive your Roses to wax moist, then put them in a pillow beare or twaine that they fall not out, and lay them upon your bed between the coverlet and the blanket all night, or else before the fire, let them drie and strew them againe. Moreover, ye must always have a bag of dry Roses in store, kept in a dry aire: for if he lose his rednesse, then loseth the Rose his sweetnesse. Finally, you must every yeare put away your old Roses, and occupie new, but keep your sweet bags still many years.

44. To make a Pome-amber

Take Benjamin one ouncee, of Storax Calomit halfe an ounce, of Laudanum the eight part of an ounce: beat them to powder; & then put them into a brazen ladle with a little Damaske or Rose-water, set them over the fire of coales till they be dissolved and be soft like wax, then take them out and chase them between your hands as ye do wax: then have these powders ready searced, of Cinnamon, of Cloves, of sweet Saunders, gray or white of each of these three powders half a quarter of an ounce, mix these powders with the other and chafe them well together: if they be two drie, moisten them with some of the Rose-water left in the ladle or other: If they wax cold, warme them upon a knives point over a chafing dish of coales: then take of Amber greece, of Muske and Civet, of each three graines, dissolve the Amber Greece in a silver spoone over hot coales: then take your Pome that you have chaffed and gathered together, and by little and little (with some sweet water if need be) gather up the Amber, Muske and Civet, and mix them with your Ball, till they be perfectly incorporated, then make one ball or two of the lumps, as yet shall thinke good, for the waight of the *?whole is about two ____ ?* make a hole in your ball, and so hang it by a lace.

If you perceive that the ball is not tough enough, but too brittle, then take a curtesie of Storax liquida, and therewith temper your ball against the fire, but take not too much Storax Liquid, because it is too strong. Or the better way is to have some Gum, called Draganthum ready dissolved into sweet water, it will be dissolved in two daies, and with that gather your ball with the heat of the fire: this ball will be of like goodness within as without, and of great price.

Some men put in the making hereof three or four drops of Oiile of Spike: beware of too much, because it is very strong.

When you will have your ball exceed in sweetness, breake it and have two or three graines of Muske, or Civet or Amber græce, as you delight in, or altogether dissolve them in Rose or Damaske water, and with the same chafe your ball over the fire, till it be drunken in, then pierce a new hole as before.

45. To make a fine Fumigation to cast on the coales

Take of Benjamin one once, of Stozar Calamit half an ounce, dissolve them as for a Pome-amber: then have ready these woods, powders, or one of them, Ginger or Capres, or of white Saunders, and Cloves of either halfe a quarter of an ounce, all in fine powder: mixe them all together, and with some Storax liquida, gather them together with the heat of fire: then make them round, of the bignes of a black floe?, and with your selfe print it a cake, while it is warm and soft.
Of these cast one or two upon a chafingdish of coales, to purge all pestiferous and corrupt aire out of your house: if you put to the other things the powder of Amber beads, it will be sweeter. Some put also Laudenum, as before said, in making the Pomander, herein do as the savour shall please you.

46. To make the same in Oslets

Take a little of fine powder of Sallow, or Willow coales, mixe it with some of your fumigation last before named, in the making, worke them well together, then fashion it with three or foure feete like a Clove, and when it is dry, kindle the end of it at a quicke coale, and it will yield a sweet savour: put not too much coales, for then it will savour of them; put not too little coales, for then it will not keep f---? & put not too much Storax liquida, for then it will be so brittle and too moist, and will not lightly dry: therefore it shall be very well to have some Gum of the Cherry tree, or Plum-tree, which they call Gum Arabicke: dissolve some of it into sweet matter, till it be liquid and rough: with this gather your Oselets, or other fumigations.

47. A moist fume upon a fuming dish

Take a piece of Pome-amber, so bag as a Bazell nut: bruise it, put it into your fuming-dish, with sweet water: put thereunto a few Bay-leaves, as much of dried Bazill leaves, a little Rosemary and set over the fire upon a cup-boord, or else in stead of the Pome-amber, put two or three of the Cakes before written, broken small, and nine or ten whole Cloves: and if you will have it excellent sweet, then put one or two graines of Muske and let the leaves and them stand over the fire together, as before is said.

48. A Fumigation for presse and clothes, that no Moth shall breed therein

Take of the wood of Cypres or Juniper, of Rosemary dried, of Storax Calamite, of Benjamin, of Cloves, a like weight beaten into fine powder, then take of the powder of Wormwood leaves, dried, as much as all the others, mix them well together, cast thereof upon a chafingdish of coales, and set it in your presse, and shut it close: and thus do oftentimes, till you have well seasoned your presse or coffer.

49. A perfume for a Chamber

Take Rosemary, sweet Marjoram, Bay-leaves, of each a handfull, a penniworth of Cloves, Vinegar, and Rose-water, a sufficient quantitie, boyle these in your perfuming pot, which smell is sweet and wholesome.

50. A perfume of Damaske

Take Storax Calomita five ounces, Benjamin, Laudanum foure ounces, Cinamon one ounce, Muske foure graines, Cloves a dramme, Rose-water half a pound, stamp them together, and when you will occupie them, put them into your perfuming pan, and boyle them.

51. An odiferous sweet ball against the plague

Take Storax, Laudanum, of each a dram, Cloves half a dramme, Camphire half a scruple, Spiknard a scruple, Nutmegs a dramme, of all these make a paste with Rose-water,tempered with Gum dragagant and Gum Arabick, stirring and boiling them well; of this paste make your balls and warme them.

52. An odiferous white powder

Take Iriss elect three ounces, White Saunders two ounces, Damaske Roses, Lignum Aloes, Benjamin, Cypri Hierand of each two ounces, Muske four graines, Civet three graines; beat and sift them by themselves, and incoroporate them in the same morter you beat them in, and keep it in a vessel well wrapped.

53. A fine red powder

Take Damaske Roses two ounces, Sandali Attrini one ounce, Ligni Aloes, Ligni Alex, of each a graine, fine Muske three drams, Civet two drams: mixe them and beat them, and keep them together as before.

54. A sweet black powder

Take Cipri Alexand., Ligni Aloes, of each halfe a dram; Sandali Citrini, Damaske Roses, of each one ounce, Cloves three graines, Muske three graines, and as much Civet; beat them together, and keepe them close in a violl well stopt.

55. A powder wherewith to make a sweet water

Take the wood of Cipresse, or the root of Gelingale one quartern, of Calamus Aromaticos one quarterne, of Drace or Iris one quarterne, of Cloves one quarterne, of Benjamin one quarterne: or ye may take of each of these one ounce for a portion, let all be beaten into powder, and when ye will distill your Roses, fill your gill with Roses leaves, and a few Spike flowres, and upon the top of same strow some of your powders, and so distill them.

Some put a little of the powder Nigella Romana, to the other powders.

These Cakes will be very sweet, put the water in a large glasse, and to the pot put twelve graines of Muske, let it hang in the midst of the water, in a thin linen cloth with a thred, set it in the Sunne twenty or thirty dayes, then take the glasse in, and set it in a dry aire.

56. Conclusion and rules to be used in distilling, and ordering of each herb or flowre before they be distilled

First, a fast fire maketh sweet water, and the sweetnesse to continue strong.
Secondly, coales still the best water.
Thirdly, waste nothing that you will still, but wipe it with a cleane cloth.
Fourthly, all herbs, flowres and seeds, must be gathered when the dew is off them.
5. That which you will still, must lie at least five houres before you still it.
6. All spices corrupt your water, except Amber-grace, Cluet, and Muske.
7. Scumme your water well.
8. Keep your still very clean.
9. Wash your Still, but not often, and then dry it with a cloth.
10. The glasse Stille is best, the Linne next, the earth not so good as the Tinne and the Leaden is worst of all.
11. Tender flowers, as Violets, Gilliflowres, and such like, would be distilled in a glasse.
12. All compositions must be stopped close before, and in stilling diligetnly weighed or measured.
13. Liquid waters must have greater fire, then dry & light waters.
14. Still not your glasse to full.
15. Put store of ashes under your Still, that your Still burn not.
16. Wipe the upper part of the still often, but especially the ridge.
17. Diligence in looking to all things.
18. Borage must be distilled: the herb with the root chopped together.
Hysope, the leaves stripped from the stalke, when it beares blue flowres.
Cammomile, the herb and flowre chopt together in the midden of May.
Dill, the herb in the beginning of May.
Fumitory, the whole substance chopped in the end of May.
Mint, either red or other, the herb, stalke, and leaves chopped, in the middle of May.
Roses, the flowre, cutting away the white ends.
Rosemary, the flowre, but, and leaves, stripped from the stalke in May, in the flowring.
Santory, the herb and flowres chopped in the end of June .
Violets, the flowres in April.
Woodbine, the flowres in the beginning of June.

57. To make water of the same colour of the flowrs that you distill

First, distill your water in a stillitory, then put it in a faire glasse, and take the buds of Roses, and cut away the white, and put the leaves into the stilled water, then stop the glasse, and put it into the stillitory to still, putting herbs into the Still for feare of burning: After this, straine the water from the leaves, and scum it well.

58. A compound water to perfume Gloves, or other things

Take Damaske water double stilled, a pound, Muske, ten graines, Ciuet three graines, Amber-græce foure graines, heat all these together to powder, and put it into the water aforesaid, and stop it close, and use it without any more stilling.

59. To make Damaske water

Take Damaske Roses, and red Roses, of each a handfull, let them drie foure houres in the shadow: then take two drams of Laudanum, Nigellae Romanæ, two penny-worth, Iries halfe an ounce, Storax two drams, Cloves an ounce, Benjamin, Calamus aromaticus,, Nutmegs, of each halfe an ounce, Marjoram, Bazell, of each halfe a handfull: bruise the spice, and put it in Malmesey, or the lees thereof, the space of four dayes: then distill it and scum it fourteen dayes.

60. Another manner of making Damaske water

Take of Arace, or Iris, of Spice flowers dried, of Cloves, of each ounce, make them in powder, put them together, with a pint of new Ale in cornes, and one pint of Rose-water in an earthen pot, put thereto a great many of green Rose-leaves, let them soake in a night time stopped close: in the morning when you shall distill, first, lay other Rose-leaves in the bottoms of your stillitory for feare of cleaving too, then take off the Rose-leaves out of the pot, and put them with other green Rose-leaves, in your stillitory sufficient, and to the water put Muske, as is abovesaid: This water is excellent to set forth a Tart, or Apple-mayse, or Almond-butter.

To make a sweet Damaske powder four manner of wayes

Take two or three handfull of dried Rose leaves, two graines of Muske, half an ounce of Cloves, and beat all these to powder.

2. Another way
Take six ounces of Drace, four ounces of Cloves, two ounces of Storax Calamite, an ounce of laudanum, with two ounces of yellow Saunders, and a little Musk.

3. Another way.
Take two ounces of Cloves, four ounces of Sprunce, foure ounces of Storax Calamite, four ounces of Roses, three ounces of Benjamin.

4. Another way.
Take three ounces of Cypres, four ounces of Benjamin, two ounces of Coriander or Laudanum, three ounces of Storax Calamite, two ounces of Roses, beat all to powder.

To make Pepper soft with the vertue of the same.
You shall do this after the same manner as is shewed for greene Ginger in the 15. chapt. that is, with sand, and the like sirop, season and keep them. Ginger and Pepper in Sirrop comforteth a cold stomacke, and helpeth much to good digestion.

To keep Barberries.

Take clarified Suger, and boyle it till it be thicker, which you shall perceive, if you take a little between your fingers, it will rope like birdlime, then put in your Barberries, and let them boyle with a hot fire, until you perceive they be tender: then put them in a glasse and cover them, and so keep them.